1. The so-called container refers to a large-sized loading container that has a certain strength, stiffness, and specifications that is exclusively used for turnover. Container transhipment cargo can be loaded directly at the consignor's warehouse and transported to the consignee's warehouse for unloading. When the vehicle or boat is changed midway, there is no need to remove the cargo from the container. According to the type of goods loaded, there are general cargo containers, bulk containers, liquid cargo containers, reefer containers, etc.; according to manufacturing materials, there are wooden containers, steel containers, aluminum alloy containers, glass steel containers, stainless steel containers, etc.; , There are folding containers, fixed containers, etc., in the fixed container can also be divided into closed containers, open top containers, pallet containers, etc.; according to the total weight, there are 30 tons of containers, 20 tons of containers, 10 tons of containers, 5 Tons of containers, 2.5 tons of containers, etc.
2. Types of containers (also called containers):
(1) According to the specification and size: At present, the commonly used dry containers (DRYCONTAINER) are:
Outer dimensions are 20 feet X 8 feet X 8 feet 6 inches, referred to as 20 feet container;
40 feet X 8 feet X 8 feet 6 inches, abbreviated 40 feet container; and 40 feet X8 feet X9 feet 6 inches used more frequently in recent years, referred to as 40 feet high cabinet.
20-foot cabinet: the internal volume of 5.69 meters X2.13 meters X2.18 meters, distribution gross weight is generally 17.5 tons, with a volume of 24-26 cubic meters.
40-foot cabinet: The internal volume is 11.8 meters X2.13 meters X2.18 meters, delivery gross weight is generally 22 tons, with a volume of 54 cubic meters.
40-foot high cabinet: The internal volume is 11.8 meters X2.13 meters X 2.72 meters. Distribution gross weight is generally 22 tons, with a volume of 68 cubic meters.
45-foot high cabinet: Internal volume: 13.58 meters X2.34 meters X 2.71 meters, delivery gross weight is generally 29 tons, volume is 86 cubic meters
20-foot open top cabinet: the internal volume of 5.89 meters X2.32 meters X2.31 meters, distribution gross weight 20 tons, volume 31.5 cubic meters.
40-foot open top: the internal volume is 12.01 meters X2.33 meters X2.15 meters, delivery gross weight 30.4 tons, volume 65 cubic meters.
20-foot flat-bottomed container: the internal volume of 5.85 meters X2.23 meters X2.15 meters, distribution gross weight 23 tons, volume 28 cubic meters.
40-foot flat-bottomed container: 12.05 m X2.12 m X 1.96 m inside, with a gross weight of 36 tons and a volume of 50 cubic meters.
(2) According to box material: There are aluminum alloy containers, steel containers, fiberboard containers, glass steel containers.
(3) by use: dry containers; REEFER CONTAINER; DRESS HANGER CONTAINER; OPENTOP CONTAINER; FLAT RACK CONTAINER; TANK CONTAINER 3. The parties involved in container transportation: mainly include: non-vessel carriers, actual container carriers, container leasing companies, container yards and container freight stations.
(1) NON-VESSEL OPERATING COMMON CARRIER (NVOCC): They specialize in the operations of cargo transportation, loading and unloading, inland transportation, and operation of transfer stations or inland stations. , It does not have to. For the real cargo owner, he is the carrier, and for the actual carrier, he is a shipper, usually the non-vessel carrier should be subject to the laws of the host country, registered in the relevant government departments.
(2) ACTUAL CARRIER: A carrier who masters transportation tools and participates in container transportation. It usually has a large number of containers to facilitate container turnover, transfer, management, and connection between containers and vehicle and ship machines.
(3) CONTAINER LEASING COMPANY: A new industry specializing in container leasing business.
(4) CONTAINER YARD: CY refers to the place for loading, unloading, custody, and handover of heavy or empty containers.
(5) CONTAINER FREIGHT STATION: CFS: It is a place to handle LCL shipments. It handles the transfer of LCL shipments. After the stowages are stowed, the CASEs are sent to CY and CY receives the imported goods. Boxes, unboxing, tally, custody, and finally assigned to each consignee. At the same time, it can also be carried out according to the commission of the carrier for sealing and issuing station receipts.
II. container outer dimensions (container's overall external dimensions)
The maximum length, width and height of the exterior of the container, including the permanent attachment of the container. It is the main parameter for determining whether a container can be exchanged between ships, chassis vehicles, trucks, and railway vehicles. It is an important technical information that each transportation department must master.
Three. container's internal dimensions (container's internal dimensions)
The maximum length, width and height of the container. The height is the distance from the bottom surface of the box to the bottom of the box top, the width is the distance between the two inner linings, and the length is the distance between the inner side of the box door and the lining of the end wall. It determines the container's internal volume and the maximum size of the goods in the container.
IV. Container's unobstructed capacity
According to the size of the container inside the loading volume. Containers of the same specification have different contents due to differences in structure and manufacturing materials. The container volume is an important technical data that the material department or other packers must master.
V. container-calculated unit (twenty-feet equivalent units: TEU)
Also known as the 20-foot conversion unit, it is the conversion unit for calculating the number of containers. At present, most of the container shipping in various countries uses two types of containers, 20 feet and 40 feet long. In order to unify the number of containers, the 20-foot container is used as a calculation unit and the 40-foot container is used as two calculation units to facilitate the unified calculation of the container's operation volume.
VI. Container leasing
That is, everyone leases an empty container to a user's business. The owner of the container is a container for lease, and the user, usually a shipping company or shipper, is the renter and both parties sign a lease contract. The qualified container provided by the lessor shall be used by the lessee within the agreed scope. There are many different ways in which containers can be leased internationally. They include: chartered rent, time chartered rent, current lease, and impeded renting in the navigation area.
VII. Container terminal (container terminal)
It is the specific handling department for handling, custody and exchange of containers or cargo in container transportation. It is entrusted by the carrier or its agent to carry out the following operations: exchange and custody of the entire box of freight; where there is a container freight station, handling the transfer of the consolidating cargo; arranging berthing of container ships, loading and unloading containers, Compilation of loading plans for each voyage; processing of the relevant shipping documents;
Prepare and sign inspections of relevant documents concerning the use of containers in and out of containers and their circulation; Checking and maintenance of containers, means of delivery, loading and unloading tools, and cleaning and fumigation of empty containers; Handling, storage, and storage of empty containers ;
Arrange the stacking of empty and heavy boxes at the yard, and prepare the site allocation plan; other related business operations.
Container loading and unloading areas are generally composed of special docks, fronts, yards, freight stations, control towers, repair departments, gates, and offices. Sometimes the yard or freight station can be extended to the city's internal transit station for 5-15 kilometers.
VIII. Marshalling yard
It refers to the site where containers are temporarily stacked to speed up the loading and unloading of ships in front of container terminals. Its role is: Before the container ship arrives in the port, there are plans to orderly place the export containers in a orderly manner according to the stowage requirements. During the unloading, the import containers are temporarily stacked in front of the quay in order to speed up the loading and unloading of ships.
Nine. Container yard (container yard)
Container heavy or empty containers for transfer, storage and storage. Some countries do not divide the front yard or the rear yard of a container yard. They are collectively referred to as yards. The container yard behind the container is an integral part of the container handling area. It is the place where the container transport “field-to-the-field” transfer method handles the transfer of the whole box cargo (in fact, it is transferred at the “gateway” of the container depot).
Ten. Van pool
Specially for empty collection, storage, storage or transfer of the venue. It is set up only when the container handling area or transfer station is short of yard. This yard does not handle heavy boxes or cargo transfers. It can be operated separately or it can be set up outside the area by a container loading and unloading area. In some countries, operating such empty container yards must be declared to the Shipping Association.
XI. Container depot or inland depot
Transit station or distribution center for container transport outside the seaport. Its role is the same as that of container loading and unloading areas, except that there is no loading and unloading operation for container ships. Measured at transit stations or inland stations, including urban transit stations for container loading and unloading ports, inland cities, and inland stations for inland ports.
12. Container freight station (CFS)
The place where the goods are transferred for both the ship and the cargo that are used for packing and unpacking the cargo. The carrier can only entrust the operator of a container freight station in a port or inland cities. It represents the carrier on behalf of the following major businesses:
Limping and transfer of LCL cargo; When there is any abnormality in the outward inspection of the goods, they shall apply for endorsement; Stowage and packing of the LCL cargo; Unboxing and safekeeping of the imported UDW; Add lead on behalf of the carrier. Seal and issue station receipts; handle various documents and preparations.
XIII. Shipper's liability
The responsibility of the shipper in container transport is not exactly the same as traditional shipping. LCL cargo shippers have the same responsibilities as traditional shipping. The responsibility of the FCL cargo shipper is different from that of traditional transportation: The correctness and completeness of the reported freight data should be guaranteed; the carrier has the right to check the contents of the box and the shipper shall bear the cost incurred due to the check; The authorities of the other authorities shall check the cost of the package and the difference between the cost of the goods and the damage incurred by the shipper shall be borne by the shipper; if the container is not full of goods, or if the container is in poor condition, the stowage is improper, or the goods are not suitable for the container transport, thus causing The shipper shall be liable for any damage or miscellaneous goods. If the shipper’s own unseaworthy container is used, the shipper shall be responsible for the cargo damage caused; and the third party’s property shall be caused during the use of the carrier’s container and equipment. Or the damage of life, the shipper shall be responsible for compensation.
XIV. Limits of liability
The maximum amount of compensation that the carrier should bear in case of cargo damage during container transport. The limitation of liability for LCL shipments is the same as traditional transportation. The compensation for the entire box of goods is in accordance with some current international jurisprudence: if the number of items loaded in the box is not listed on the bill of lading, each box is used as a claim calculation unit; if the number of loaded items in the box is listed on the bill of lading, the quantity is still counted. Calculations; if damage and loss of cargo does not result in maritime transport, but in inland transport, the maximum amount of compensation for land transport shall be applied; if the container is owned or provided by the shipper, it shall be lost or damaged. Its responsibility is indeed the carrier should bear, it should also be regarded as a claim calculation unit.
15. The same responsibility system (uniform liability system)
A System of Compensation Liability for Transport Damage Liability for Transport Operators . In accordance with this system, the carrier responsible for issuing the combined bill of lading shall be responsible for the entire transportation responsibility to the cargo owner, that is, regardless of the transportation stage at which the cargo damage is bad, it shall be responsible for the same responsibility. If it is possible to identify the stage of transportation where the damage occurred, the intermodal carrier may, after compensation, recover the actual carrier from the transportation.
XVI. Network liability system
A System of Compensation Liability for Transport Damage Liability for Transport Operators . According to this system, although the carrier issuing the combined bill of lading is still responsible for the entire shipment to the cargo owner, the damages in case of damages are not like the same responsibility system, but are responsible according to the responsibility of the contents of the transportation stage where the damage occurred. For example, damages occur at the stage of maritime transport and are handled in accordance with international freight regulations; if they occur at the stage of rail or road transport, they are handled in accordance with relevant international or domestic laws.
XVII. Container rules of freight conference
On the route of container ships in some countries, the shipping associations have separately formulated the container transportation rules used by suppliers in order to monopolize the container transportation on their own routes. These rules are formulated by the associations in response to the conditions of the airlines within the scope of their operations. Therefore, the rules of the various associations are different, but the basic spirit is the same, that is, the responsibilities of both parties are the same. The content of the rules generally includes the following aspects:
Container handling port, distribution and transportation;
All kinds of transportation and delivery methods are responsible for both parties.
Booking procedures and cargo data reporting;
All kinds of clauses include bills of lading, plus approval clauses, port clauses and accident clauses;
Bill of lading issued;
Equipment handover procedures, use free time and demurrage fees; Delivery procedures;
Freight calculation method and payment;
Measures for the collection of various cost items, changes in rates;
Currency, devaluation, value-added regulations;
Inland transportation regulations and charges.
18. Receiving and delivery system
In container transport, there are the following ways of transfer between full cargo and LCL cargo between cargo and cargo parties:
Door to door (door