Freight charges are calculated based on the freight rates specified by liner companies. At present, the tariff schedules formulated by various shipping companies are not exactly the same, but their basic content is relatively close.
The shipping company’s price list is generally divided into several levels depending on the type and nature of the goods, and the ease of loading and storage. Within the same route, the basic rates charged by shipping companies are different due to the different levels of goods. Therefore, the level of goods and the level of freight have a great relationship.
Secondly, the freight calculation standards are not the same. For example, heavy cargo generally receives freight in terms of weight and tons, and light cargoes are measured in size and tonnage. Some high-value goods are collected as a percentage of FOB value, and some products Calculate according to the mixed method, for example, first calculate the weight in tons or size tons, and then add some ad valorem freight. The performance in the tariff list is as follows:
First, according to the weight of tons, known as the weight of tons, the table listed "W", per metric ton or per ton per unit of calculation.
Second, according to the volume of goods received, known as the size of tons, the table listed "M", generally 1 cubic meter or 40 cubic feet for a size ton as a unit of calculation.
Third, according to the volume or weight, calculated by the ship's side, the table is listed as "W / M".
Fourth, according to a certain percentage of FOB value of goods, it is called ad Valorem, which is listed as AdVal or A.V.
Fives. According to the mixing standard, such as W/MplusAV. That is, according to the weight of ton or size ton plus the freight from the price. In addition, there are some items that are measured in perunit or perhead, the former being vehicles, the latter being live animals. For bulk commodities such as grain, ore, and coal, the shipping company may negotiate with the owner to determine the freight rate for reasons such as large shipments, low commodity prices, and ease of loading and unloading.
Calculating freight rates based on freight rates is a relatively complicated task. It not only needs to be familiar with the basic content of the tariffs, but also requires careful work. When calculating freight rates, the basic rates are first calculated in addition to the routes and grades of goods (BasisRate). ) Calculate the basic shipping costs, and then find out the various additional cost items, and count the additional expenses that need to be paid.
These additional cost items are many, for example, due to different products, different ports, or other reasons, there may be surcharges, but also to keep abreast of its changes.
The surcharges are roughly the following:
First, the additional features of different product characteristics and increase income, such as overweight surcharges, long surcharges, washing fees and so on.
2. Surcharges to increase revenue due to different conditions of the port, such as port surcharges, port congestion fees, port selection fees, direct flight surcharges, etc.
Third, for other reasons and temporary increase in surcharges, such as fuel surcharges, depreciation surcharges.
In fact, there are many types of surcharges, which are far more than those mentioned above. It is worth noting that some surcharges, such as port congestion fees, account for a large percentage of freight charges, which are as low as 10% and as much as 100% or even more than twice the base freight. Therefore, the calculation of the surcharge cannot be ignored when calculating the freight.
Here is an example. A round of shipments of 10 tons from Shanghai, a total of 11.3 cubic meters of egg products, to Plymouth Port in the United Kingdom, requires direct shipping. What is the total shipping cost? Solution: After reviewing the cargo classification table, it is known that egg products are of class 10 and the calculation standard is W/M; the basic rate of class 10 goods of China-European Mediterranean route rating rate is 116 yuan/ton; The rate table shows that the direct surcharge for Plymouth Port is 18 yuan per ton, and the fuel surcharge is 35%. Therefore, all shipping charges are: F=(116+116X35%+18)X11=1920.60 yuan In this example, 10 tons of egg products were checked by the cargo classification table, and the calculated standard was W/M, and the larger one was used as the calculation standard. 11 metric tons.